Tag Archives: Warmers

Pronunciation activities: hear/say

Photo from: https://flic.kr/p/7J5PTA
Photo from: https://flic.kr/p/7J5PTA

In this post I wanted to share an idea for e very low-prep pronunciation activity called ‘Hear/Say’. I haven’t invented it, and I imagine it’s been around for quite some time. I wish I could give credit where it’s due, but after so many years of using it, I unfortunately can’t remember who showed it to me. So if you’re reading this, and it was you, please reveal yourself in the comments section.

I like the activity, because it addresses both the recognition and the production aspects of pronunciation. It’s also very quick and quite easy to prepare. As a result, it can be easily re-used in class as a revision, warmer or filler. Students usually have a lot of fun with it as they get mixed up and can’t get to the FINISH line.

Admittedly, the activity focuses on isolated items taken out of context. Therefore, some more meaningful pronunciation and speaking practice should follow.


  • practice hearing and pronouncing the difference between two similar sounds


  • around 5mins


  • any


  • select two similar sounds your students find hard to differentiate between
  • prepare a list of minimal pairs, i.e. pairs of two words that in pronunciation only differ by one sound, e.g. walk and work
  • fold the worksheet in the middle, so that each student can only see half of it
  • sit a pair of students in front of each other
  • the start arrow indicates which student starts
  • when the next student hears a word, they have to locate it in the HEAR column and say the word next to it in the SAY column
  • the students will only get to the finish button if they are able to correctly pronounce the words and identify the words their partner is pronouncing
  • at the end give class feedback and revise any words that were tricky
  • if appropriate, repeat in a different pairing

Below are two example Hear/Say worksheets. The first one is for /l/ and /r/, which are two sounds many Asian students find tricky. The second one focuses on /æ/ and /ʌ/ and uses phonetic script. If your students are unfamiliar with it, you might want to change it to the normal script.

Example 1: /l/ vs. /r/

hear say l and rExample 2:  /æ/ vs. /ʌ/

hearsay ashAdditional ideas:

  1. Get students to prepare their own tables with words and sounds they find difficult. This saves you time, shifts the responsibility for learning and progress onto them and makes the activity more personalised.
  2. Do it as a race and award points to the students that finish first. Change pairs a couple of times and repeat the activity. Whoever get most points wins.

Good luck and let me know how it goes!

Teaching 1-1: The first class

The first class can be crucial for how the rest of the course pans out. It will set the tone. Especially in a 1-1 setting. After all, there’s just the two of you. So the first set of aims to bear in mind is affective:

  • build rapport (break the ice, get to know each other)
  • motivate the student
  • set the tone for the future classes (learner-centred, relevant, enjoyable, useful)

The next set of aims concerns generating the course content, as well as the objectives and goals. The key principle of 1–1 teaching is that “the student is the syllabus” (Osborne 2005: 3). So as much as possible, the content/topic of the class should be based on students preferences, or even generated by the learner. So ideally what you want to establish in the first class is:

  • what the learner wants to know (wants)
  • what the learner doesn’t know (lacks)
  • what the learner needs to use their English for (needs)
  • what topics and activity types the learner enjoys (preferences)

All this should ensure that the course aims will be relevant, realistic and achievable.

Uff! Seems like a hell lot of work for one class. So how the heck do I go about it then?

As you can imagine, bringing and using a course book in the first class, even if one has been assigned one by the Academic department, is probably not the best solution, albeit a very tempting one. After all, you might not feel at ease coming in with nothing to the first class. Something which can prompt and focus the discussion may come in handy.

Below are some ideas for activities which involve very little prep and materials, and which can help you go about achieving the two sets of aims discussed above in a communicative way:

  1. Spidergram – write down key words or phrases which are answers to some questions about you (e.g. hobby, favourite dish, etc.). Afterwards the student writes down the phrases connected to their lives. This can be done on small separate cards which are turned one by one or all on one piece of paper/whiteboard. Student tries to guess the question. NOTE: It helps to a) identify student’s lacks b) upgrade their lg c) it is also a great ice–breaker and stimulus for further discussion. Modify the content according to the student’s level (i.e. only present simple questions) 
  2. Topic cards – cards with everyday topics face down. You/student turn the first card around and use it as a stimulus for discussion. NOTE: a) encourage the student to ask you questions (apart from the obvious communicative purpose, it also can serve as a diagnostic) b) if you already know something about the student, you can tailor the topics to match their interests, knowledge, job, etc. 
  3. Life Circles – divide the whiteboard/piece of paper into three parts: past, present and future. Put some ideas in each part related to your life. The learner does the same. Apart from being a good ice–breaker and GTKY, the activity helps elicit varied lg, which can serve to identify student’s lacks. As above, it’s a good idea to encourage the student to ask you follow up questions. 
  4. True/False – write some facts about yourself on pieces of paper. Try to make them as interesting as possible. Write at least one false sentence. The learner does the same. Turn the cards one by one. Ask questions to identify the false one. You both try to pretend all sentences are true. See who’s a better liar. It serves well to check question formation. 
  5. Needs analysis – a questionnaire which prompts the learner to express their course needs and expectations can be of excellent use for the first lesson.
  6. Meaningful objects – often 1-1 teaching takes place at student’s workplace, their or the teacher’s house. Use this as an opportunity to select some objects that are meaningful for the student, or can be used as springboard for discussion.
NOTE: all of the above, apart from their affective and communicative purposes, can be used diagnostically, i.e. identifying student’s language lacks for immediate or subsequent remedial work (you can find some ideas on how to deal with emerging language and offer on-the-spot practice here). They can and should be adjusted to the student’s level. Ease the student into the idea that they should ask questions as well as you. After all, the above are all discussion activities.
Have you got any favourite activities for the first class? Looking forward to your comments.

Recycling: the best habit on Earth

Without a doubt, learning new lexis is often what many students consider vital in their classes. However, most of them are not sure how to do it effectively. And let’s be honest, few will devote enough out-of-class time to memorise the new vocabulary.

So if we want our students to expand their vocabulary range, we need to find time in class which we will devote to recycling new words.

Don’t we have enough work on our hands, though? Why bother recycling at all?
  1. according to research sts need to see a lexical item between 7 and 9 times in order to memorise it 
  2. your sts will learn a lot of new lexis and very often that’s their priority 
  3. it neither takes much prep nor effort (get the sts to record the vocab!)
  4. you’ll have an endless list of both productive and fun warmers and fillers which need no prep nor   planning!

 So without further ado, here are some practical activities to do with your students. As a disclaimer, I don’t pretend to have invented them. They’ve been around in one form or another for ages, and I’ve picked them up along the way. I’ve also done these activities in a workshop format, so those who worked with me in San Sebastian, Budapest or San Jose might recognise the activities straight away.
If you know any other activities, please let me know. We could add them to the list 🙂


Recycling Vocabulary – Activities

  1. Vocab column on the board: 
  • note lexis that comes up during the class
  • use it at least once to recycle, e.g. give a definition, students run up to the board and point to the correct word (good for shaking the class up if they’re falling asleep)
2. Ranking activities:
  • putting words on a cline, e.g. the strongest to the weakest
  • I like most/least, e.g. for weekend activities
  • in general, pick any order depending on the group of words (i.e. the most to the least serious crime)
3. Taboo: 
  • teacher explains the word, others guess (in pairs, groups, etc)
  • IDEA: get students to explain the words (takes the focus off you; puts the responsibility for learning in their hands)
  • IDEA 2: if you have a very large class, you can have more than one taboo going at the same time to keep everyone busy
4. Gapped sentences: 
  • sts prepare at home or if time in class (more demanding and therefore increases retention, BUT more time consuming)
  • prepared by the teacher
  • IDEA: use questions instead of affirmatives and get sts to do a mingle (more communicative)
  • IDEA 2: do orally as a dictation (more demanding + a listening practice)
5. Coffepot:
  • substitute a word with coffeepot, e.g. I coffeepot in the morning before breakfast.
  • IDEA: do as a dictation
  • IDEA 2: get sts to do it in pairs (increases Student Talking Time)
6. Noughts and crosses: 
  • draw noughts and crosses board on the whiteboard, putting a word in each field
  • sts copy it to their notebooks 
  • in pairs, they have to make a correct sentence with the word to be able to win the field
  • when they’ve finished divide the class in half and play as a whole class activity
  • IDEA: once the sts are familiar with the activity, get them to create their own noughts and crosses with the words they find difficult (makes it more personalised and meaningful)
7. Storytelling: 
  • each st has a set of words on cards (or the whole group has words face up on the desk)
  • continue a story adding a sentence with one of the words
  • IDEA: set a points system, e.g. one point for every correctly used word (makes it more competitive)
8. Collocations/word sets:
  • list all words collocating with _______
  • IDEA: do it as a team race or set a time limit to increase competitiveness
9. Blockbusters:
  • sts move across the board by making correct sentences with the words given
10. Crosswords, word searches:
11. Questions:
  • sts prepare questions for their classmates using the words you are revising, e.g. Have you ever…? Do you….? When was the last time you…? etc.
  • IDEA: sts write questions on slips of paper; mix them up and redistribute randomly
  • IDEA 2: class mingle when sts swap the questions after asking them and move on
12. Recycling worksheets: 
  • prepare a grid, e.g. 5 x 5, where you will put in the words from the class
  • distribute to groups and play various games, such as: 3 in a row, definitions snap, story telling/writing, get rid of your cards(explanations/use in a sentence), use as many as possible in one sentence,  sentences about yourself (true and false, guess which one is false)…
  • IDEA: cut the grid up to make recycling cards
  • IDEA 2: get sts to prepare the grid themselves (more relevant and personalised)
13. Snap: 
  • spread word cards in front of a group of sts
  • one st provides a definition, the others try to grab the right word as soon as possible
14. Spelling race:
  • sts stand in rows at the far end of the classroom facing the board
  • say a word, the first student in the line runs up to the board and tries to spell it correctly
  • IDEA: use a definition instead of the word, or gapped sentence, or the coffeepot
  • IDEA 2: put a student in charge

15. Memrise.com!

  • learn almost 2500 words in a year in a fun way, spending less than 60mins a week on it. Impossible? Read my post about Memrise here.
And after all the fun in the classroom, if you’re still feeling like learning more, read up on lexis:
  • Lewis, M. 1993. The Lexical Approach
  •  Lewis, M. 1997. Implementing The Lexical Approach. 
  • Thornbury, S. 2002. How to Teach Vocabulary.
  • Harmer, J. 2006. The practice of English Language Teaching (chapter 12, 14)